The Accident Causation Models

The need for studying the accident causation has been recognized as an important aspect of scrutinizing the safety of work environment within an organization and as a means of effecting prevention. Over the years, the researchers have developed a plethora of theories that attempt to draw a relationship between the occurrence of accidents, factors contributing to the outcomes and the implication of the accidents to the organizations (Safety Institute of Australia Ltd., 2012). The accident is termed as any unplanned event that occurs and ultimately leads to damage to the property or injury to the people. Starting with the historical context, the results of the studies have revealed that for accidents to occur there exist a series of events that work concurrently, which are attributable to unsafe acts and latent hazard conditions. This paper seeks to explore a background review of three accident causation models as they were developed and provide a comparison of these theories by the approaches employed and methodologies. The paper will conclude with a comprehensive evaluation of the interrelations between three theories and how they impact the organizations.


The Domino Effect Model

The theory of Domino Effect was developed in 1931 by Heinrich and has become one of the popular accident causation theories. The domino effect theory states that most of the accidents are caused by people’s unsafe activities by 88%, the hazardous conditions contribute 10% while uncontrollable circumstances that he attributed to acts of God are 2% (Safety Institute of Australia Ltd., 2012). Typically, the Heinrich model proposes that one single event leads to another in a long chain that ends in an accident. When developing this theory, Heinrich claimed that an organization can be able to predict and thus prevent accidents by understanding the reasons for the unsafe acts….



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